8.         Bibliography and websites

 

 

8.1     Sustainability and economic growth

8.1.1     Criticism to the economic growth paradigm which results in resources' exhaustion

8.1.2     The economy as a complex system and the concept of sustainability

8.1.3     Alternative paradigms of organization of the economy

 

8.2     Sustainable design

8.2.1     Introduction & websites

8.2.2     Paradigms of the living world in sustainable designing

8.2.3     "Integration" with the physical environment:  Urban scale sustainable designing

8.2.3.1     Paolo Soleri: Arcosanti

8.2.3.2     New Urbanism

8.2.3.3     Carfree Cities

8.2.4     Sustainable building techniques

8.2.4.1     Materials

8.2.4.2     Exploitation of geothermal energy

8.2.4.3     Green Roofs

8.2.4.4     City Farming

 

8.3     The concept of "integration" in the framework of "complex systems"

8.3.1     The theory of complex systems

8.3.2     Designing principles in the framework of complex systems' theory

8.3.3     Kinetic Design

 

8.4     The "language" paradigm in designing

8.4.1     "Pattern Language"

8.4.2     Combination of the "language" approach with living world paradigms

 

8.5     Integration in the production environment

8.5.1     Network production organization

8.5.2     The "Open Source" paradigm

8.5.3     Virtual Enterprises

8.5.4     Social Capital

8.5.5     Study of forms of "integration" of the production within the framework of "complex systems"

 

 

 

8.1     Sustainability and economic growth

 

8.1.1     Criticism to the economic growth paradigm which results in resources' exhaustion

 

Hardin G., 1968, "The Tragedy of the Commons", Science, 162:1243-1248.

http://www.condition.org/ghardin.htm

 

Daly H., 1991. Steady-State Economics. Island Press, Washington.

http://dieoff.org/page88.htm

 

New Economics Foundation

http://www.neweconomics.org

 

 

8.1.2     The economy as a "complex system" and the concept of sustainability

 

Foxon, T., D. Hammond, and J. Wells. "Can Complexity Studies Advance Sustainability? Scaling in Natural & Social Systems." Complex Systems Summer School Final Project Papers, Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM, 2005.

http://www.sustentabilidad.uai.edu.ar/pdf/cs/complex.pdf

 

Tainter J.A., 1996, "Complexity, Problem Solving, and Sustainable Societies"

http://www.oilcrash.com/articles/complex.htm

from GETTING DOWN TO EARTH: Practical Applications of Ecological Economics,

Island Press, 1996; ISBN 1-55963-503-7 http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1559635037

 

W. Brian Arthur, 1999. "Complexity and the Economy," Science, 2 April 1999, 284, 107-109.

http://tuvalu.santafe.edu/~wbarthur/Papers/EconandComplex_Web.pdf

This article does not refer directly to the sustainability of the economic growth, but focus in issues of divergence and non-predictability

More articles of the author are available in:

http://www.santafe.edu/search/results/?query=brian+arthur

 

 

8.1.3     Alternative paradigms of organization of the economy

 

ZNet & Participatory Economics (PARECON)

ZNet: http://www.zcommunications.org/znet/topics/economy

PARECON: http://www.zcommunications.org/znet/topics/parecon

 

Albert M. and Hahnel R., 1991, The Political Economy of Participatory Economics

Princeton University Press

http://books.zcommunications.org/books/polpar.htm

 

Further alternative organization paradigms are reported in the section "Integration in the production environment"

 

 

 

8.2     Sustainable design

 

8.2.1     Introduction & websites

 

Kim J-J, 1998, Introduction to Sustainable Design. National Pollution Prevention Center for Higher Education, Ann Arbor, MI

http://www.umich.edu/~nppcpub/resources/compendia/ARCHpdfs/ARCHdesIntro.pdf

 

Sustainable Architecture

http://www.arch.hku.hk/research/BEER/sustain.htm

 

The Sustainable Design Resource Guide

http://www.buildinggreen.com/auth/article.cfm/1995/11/1/The-Sustainable-Design-Resource-Guide-Colorado-the-Western-Mountain-Region-2nd-Edition/ 

 

 

8.2.2     Paradigms of the living world in sustainable designing

 

The "sustainable design" methods are structurally related to phenomena that characterize the living world, as the latter is formed according to sustainability criteria. In particular, such phenomena adopted in "sustainable design" methods include both evolution and development (see also: Combination of the "language" approach with living world paradigms). These phenomena have been thoroughly studied within the framework of "Complex Systems".

 

Magnoli G.C., Bonanni L.A., Khalaf R., Fox M., 2001, "Designing a DNA for responsive architecture:

a new built environment for social sustainability", MIT Media Lab, Development by design Workshop

http://printfu.org/responsive+architecture

 

E. Tsui, 1996, Evolutionary Architecture: Nature as a Basis for Design. John Wiley & Sons Inc

http://www.tdrinc.com/prin.html

http://www.tdrinc.com/

 

 

8.2.3     "Integration" with the physical environment:  Urban scale sustainable designing

 

The "integration" of both natural and built space within a unified system could be based on the maintenance of the natural environment and the utilization of the natural resources which diminishes the necessity of expensive, cumbersome urban infrastructure. This reduces the social cost while improves the quality of the built space.

 

8.2.3.1  Paolo Soleri: Arcosanti

 

http://www.arcosanti.org/

 

Soleri P., 1993, Arcosanti: An Urban Laboratory?. Mayer, AZ.: The Cosanti Press, 1993

http://www.arcosanti.org/

 

Soleri P., 1969, Arcology: City in the Image of Man, Cambridge, MA.: Mit Press.

 

8.2.3.2  New Urbanism

 

Duany A., Speck J., Plater-Zyberk E., 2001, Smart Growth: New Urbanism in American Communities. McGraw-Hill Education

New Urbanism:                             http://www.newurbanism.org/

Congress for the New Urbanism:   http://www.cnu.org

 

8.2.3.3  Carfree Cities

 

Crawford J.H., 2000, Carfree Cities. International Books

www.carfree.com

 

 

8.2.4     Sustainable building techniques

 

The choice of materials having low social cost while satisfy the required specifications, the utilization of "soft" natural energy sources, the energy saving through bioclimatic techniques such as planting appropriate areas of the construction, as well as the reduction of the urban infrastructure through the production of the necessary resources within the consumption centers, constitute common sustainable building techniques.

 

 

8.2.4.1  Materials

 

Ries J.P. and Holm T.A., 2004, "A Holistic Approach to Sustainability for the Concrete Community", Information sheet 7700.1

http://www.escsi.org/uploadedFiles/Technical_Docs/General_Information/7700.1%20A%20Holistic%20Approach%20to%20Sustainability%20for%20the%20Concrete%20Community.pdf

 

Centre for Design at RMIT (1999). "Introduction to EcoReDesign"

http://mams.rmit.edu.au/n821v5zy4iq3.pdf

 

8.2.4.2  Exploitation of geothermal energy

 

Lund J.W., 2004, "100 Years of Geothermal Power Production", GHC Bulletin Articles Vol 25, No. 3: revised version of the article appearing in Renewable Energy World, Vol. 7, No. 4

http://geoheat.oit.edu/bulletin/bull25-3/art2.pdf

 

Lund J., Sanner B., Rybach L., Curtis R., Hellstrom G., 2003, "Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pumps - A World Overview", GHC Bulletin Articles Vol 25, No. 3: edited and updated version of the article from Renewable Energy World, Vol. 6, No.4

http://www.ewp.rpi.edu/hartford/~walshb/EP/Other/References/GEOTHERMAL%20(GROUND-SOURCE)%20HEAT%20PUMPS.pdf

 

Boyd T.L and Lienau P.J., 1995. "Geothermal Heat Pump Performance", Geothermal Resources Council 1995 Annual Meeting, Reno NV.

http://geoheat.oit.edu/techpap.htm#heat

 

Rafferty K., 2000. "Design Aspects of Commercial Open-Loop Heat Pump Systems", Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR.

http://geoheat.oit.edu/techpap.htm#heat

 

Kavanaugh, S., 1995. "Cost Containment for Ground-Source Heat Pumps", The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL.

http://geoheat.oit.edu/techpap.htm#heat

 

Mendrinos D., Karagiorgas Μ., Karytsas C., 2002, "Use of Geothermal Heat Pumps for Heating of Buildings in Greece" presented in the OPET – Low Temperature Systems in Existing/ Historical Buildings Workshop (OPET – LowExx Workshop), Maastricht, the Netherlands.

http://www.cres.gr/kape/publications/papers/dimosieyseis/geotherm/01-GEO.doc

 

Websites

 

Geothermal Energy Technology (GET) subject portal

http://www.osti.gov/get/gethome.html

 

Geo-Heat Center Publications Technical Reports and Papers

http://geoheat.oit.edu/techpap.htm

 

U.S. Department of Energy: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

http://www.eere.energy.gov/

 

GEO-HEAT CENTER Geothermal Information and Technology Transfer

http://geoheat.oit.edu/

 

wikipedia: Geothermal exchange heat pump

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geothermal_exchange_heat_pump

 

GEOEXCHANGE Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium

http://www.geoexchange.org/

 

International Ground Source Heat Pump Association (IGSHPA)

http://www.igshpa.okstate.edu/

 

 

8.2.4.3  Green Roofs

 

Peck S.W., Callaghan C., Kuhn M.E. and Bass B., 1999, "Greenbacks from Green Roofs: Forging a New Industry in Canada". Status Report prepared for Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation

http://commons.bcit.ca/greenroof/files/2012/01/Greenbacks.pdf

 

Green Roof Centre (UK)

http://www.thegreenroofcentre.co.uk/

 

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_roof

http://www.charityguide.org/volunteer/fewhours/green-roof.htm

http://www.greenroofs.org/

 

 

8.2.4.4  City Farming

 

Resources for City Farming

http://journeytoforever.org/cityfarm_link.html

 

Smit J., Ratta A. and Nasr J., 1996, Urban Agriculture: Food, Jobs and Sustainable Cities. The Urban Agriculture Network,NW Washington DC

http://www.cityfarmer.org/smitbook90.html

 

See also:

http://www.cityfarmer.org/

 

 

8.3     The concept of "integration" in the framework of "complex systems"

 

Reference to the living world paradigm, spontaneous development, variability, adaptability, formation by evolution, structure development through interactions, as well as the concept of "integration" itself which is closely related to emergent properties, make necessary a broader framework, within the exact sciences, providing the basis for studying both the integrated and the sustainable building. The theory of complex systems provides such a framework, while it has been considered as the basis of many current approaches to both the analysis and the design of the built space.

 

 

8.3.1     The theory of complex systems

 

Brief introduction

http://necsi.org/guide/study.html

 

Bar‑Yam Y., 1997, Dynamics of Complex Systems. Addison Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts

http://necsi.org/publications/dcs/index.html

 

Kauffman S.A., 1988, "Origins of order in evolution: self organization and selection". in Workshop on Chaos and Complexity, Eds R Livi, S Ruffo, S Ciliberto, M Buiati (World Scientific Publishing, Singapore), 349-387

 

Kauffman S.A., 1995, At Home in the Universe. Oxford University Press: NewYork.

 

Holland J.H., 1995, Hidden Order: How Adaptation Builds Complexity. Helix Books, Addison-Wesley: Reading, Mass.

 

8.3.2     Principles of design within the framework of complex systems

 

Bar-Yam Y., 2003, "When Systems Engineering Fails -- Toward Complex Systems Engineering", International Conference on Systems, Man & Cybernetics, Vol. 2, 2021- 2028, IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ

http://necsi.org/projects/yaneer/E3-IEEE_final.pdf

 

Hensel M., Menges A., Weinstock M., 2004. Emergence: Morphogenetic Design Strategies, Wiley-Academy

 

Jacobs J., 1993, Death and Life of Great American Cities. Random House USA Inc

http://www.katarxis3.com/Jacobs.htm

 

Salingaros N.A., 1997, "Life and Complexity in Architecture From a Thermodynamic Analogy", Physics Essays, volume 10 1997, pages 165-173.

http://www.academia.edu/2672129/Life_and_complexity_in_architecture_from_a_thermodynamic_analogy

 

Salingaros N.A., 2005, Principles of Urban Structure. Techne Press, Amsterdam, Holland.

 

8.3.3     Kinetic Design

 

Design applications based on the principle of adaptability have been developed within the framework of "kinetic design": the building project has kinetic attributes which allow adaptation to variable conditions.

 

Kinetic Design Group

http://www.robotecture.com/kdg/

 

 

8.4     The "language" paradigm in designing

 

Information saving and reusability characterizes the integrated systems, as well as the sustainable design in general, as information constitutes an important production resource. A general saving-reusability method is the use of modules which, if combined under appropriate syntactic rules, result in complex modules: this process, recursively applied, makes possible the production of complex desired structures by a construction procedure having a small number of steps. The particular approach to either the design or the construction refers to the notion of a "language". A classical example is C. Alexander's "Pattern Language". The language-based approach can be combined with the living world paradigms of both evolution and development within the framework of complex systems.

 

8.4.1     "Pattern Language"

 

Alexander C., 1978, A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction. Center for Environmental Structure Series,  Oxford University Press Inc, USA.

http://www.patternlanguage.com/

 

8.4.2     Combination of the "language" approach with living world paradigms

 

The paradigm of evolution

Salingaros N.A., Mikiten T.M., 2002, "Darwinian Processes and Memes in Architecture: A Memetic Theory of Modernism". Journal of Memetics - Evolutionary Models of Information Transmission, volume 6

http://cfpm.org/jom-emit/2002/vol6/salingaros_na&mikiten_tm.html

 

The paradigm of development

Salingaros N.A., 1998, "A Scientific Basis for Creating Architectural Forms", Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, volume 15 pages 283-293.

http://www.researchgate.net/publication/232596348_A_scientific_basis_for_creating_architectural_forms

 

More articles available in: http://math.utsa.edu/sphere/salingar/contr.arch.html

 

 

8.5     Integration in the production environment

 

 

8.5.1     Network production organization

 

The environment of production consists of available production technologies, as well as production units which, if appropriately combined, make possible the production of a collective product. Such a combination could organize the production as an integrated system through the network organization of the producers.

 

Van Alstyne M., 1997 "The State of Network Organization: A Survey in Three Frameworks." Journal of Organizational Computing 7(3).

http://ccs.mit.edu/papers/ccswp192/ccswp192.html

http://stuff.mit.edu/people/marshall/papers/NWOrg.pdf

 

Stephen P. Borgatti and Pacey C. Foster, 2003 "The Network Paradigm in Organizational Research: A Review and Typology", Journal of Management, Volume 29, Issue 6, December 2003, Pages 991-1013

http://www.analytictech.com/borgatti/papers/borgattifoster.pdf

(see also: Social Capital)

 

Christian Fuchs, 2006, "Transnational Space and the “Network Society”", Paper Presented at the Association of Internet Researchers (AoIR) Conference: Internet Research 7.0, Brisbane, September 27-30, 2006

http://fuchs.uti.at/wp-content/uploads/transnationalspace_networksociety.pdf

 

 

8.5.2     The "Open Source" and "peer to peer" paradigms

 

The free distribution and usage of the produced information, as well as the spontaneous formation of the production organization structure, characterize the "open source" paradigm (the term "open source" comes from the field of informatics, as the particular principles were initially applied in software production). The massive free cooperation among producers, aiming to products that constitute common property, is associated to the related paradigm of "peer to peer" (abreviated as "P2P") production.

 

Loshin P., 2006, "The Economics of Free Software", Busines Intelligence Network (website)

http://www.b-eye-network.com/view/2929?jsessionid=52bd6b3715b9b61ceb34f7c5ece9be57

 

MIT Open Source Building Alliance: invitation for a multiparty modular contribution—according to the "open source" paradigm—to the development of integrated production technology.

http://architecture.mit.edu/house_n/documents/OSBA%20white%20paper.pdf

http://architecture.mit.edu/house_n/projects.html

 

Thinkcycle Open Collaborative Design

http://groundswellcollective.com/2008/04/03/thinkcycle-open-collaborative-design/

http://www.experientia.com/blog/thinkcycle/

PDF File

 

Social peer-to-peer processes

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_peer-to-peer_processes

 

P2P foundation

http://p2pfoundation.net/

 

 

8.5.3     Virtual Enterprises

 

The development of informal, mutually beneficial cooperation relations among independent production units, as well as the informal formation of a unified production mechanism based on such relations, is characterized as "virtual enterprise".

 

Ader M., 2000, "Technologies for the Virtual Enterprise", in Excellence in Practice Volume III: Innovation & Excellence in Workflow Process and Knowledge Management. L. Fischer, Future Strategies

http://www.e-workflow.org/downloads/gue-tec.pdf

 

Bryson J.R., Rusten G., 2004, "Virtual Firms and the Rise of Project-Based Organizational Forms for the Supply of Business Service Expertise: Information communication technologies and the stretching of social relationships across space", XIVe Conference RESERCastres, TIC et relations de services dans une economie globalisee

http://www.reser.net/download/23_S3_BR.PDF

 

Mikolas Z, Wozniakova Z, 2009, "Virtual Firm Competitiveness", World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 58 2009

http://www.waset.org/journals/waset/v34/v34-50.pdf

 

Katzy BR, Obozinski V, 1999, "Designing the Virtual Enterprise", Proceedings of ICE 99, 5th International Conf.on Concurrent Engineering, The Hague, Netherlands, Mar 99

https://www.google.gr/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&cad=rja&ved=0CDIQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fciteseerx.ist.psu.edu%2Fviewdoc%2Fdownload%3Fdoi%3D10.1.1.107.5942%26rep%3Drep1%26type%3Dpdf&ei=8tyAUeXlAenD0QX24YD4CQ&usg=AFQjCNEkoocTjO94DV3GAeTKJysTzzePlQ&sig2=WVAbJlu35wZ6FkXpgPmKcw&bvm=bv.45921128,d.d2k

 

 

8.5.4     Social Capital

 

The development of various forms of networked production requires a social infrastructure which includes both knowledge and skill variability, as well as a network of appropriate social relations. This infrastructure is characterized as "social capital".

 

Burt R., 2000, "The network structure of social capital", in Research in Organizational Behavior, Volume 22, BM Staw, RL Sutton (Eds), JAI Press, Greenwich CT

http://faculty.chicagobooth.edu/ronald.burt/research/files/NSSC.pdf

 

Jarvenpaa, E., Stina I., 2005, "Social capital and knowledge management of organizational network". The 5th European Conference on Organizational Knowledge, Learning and Capabilities, Innsbruck

http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/wbs/conf/olkc/archive/oklc5/papers/i-4_jarvenpaa.pdf

 

 

8.5.5     Study of forms of "integration" of the production within the framework of "complex systems"

 

The development of forms of ad hoc cooperation, as well as the emergence of synergistic phenomena has been studied within the framework of complex systems.

 

M. Klein, H. Sayama, P. Faratin, and Y. Bar-Yam: What complex systems research can teach us about collaborative design, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Design (CSCWD-2001), 5-12, 2001, IEEE Press.

http://necsi.org/projects/klein/cscwd-01.pdf

 

J. K. Werfel and Y. Bar-Yam, The evolution of reproductive restraint through social communication, PNAS 101, 11019-11024, 2004.

http://necsi.org/projects/yaneer/WerfelBarYamPNAS2004.pdf

 

M. Klein, H. Sayama, P. Faratin, and Y. Bar-Yam: The dynamics of collaborative design: Insights from complex systems and negotiation research, Concurrent Engineering: Research and Applications (CERA Journal) 11:3, 201-209, September

http://necsi.org/projects/klein/klein2003-cera.pdf

 

M. Klein, H. Sayama, P. Faratin, and Y. Bar-Yam: A complex systems perspective on computer-supported collaborative design technology, Communications of the ACM 45:11, 27-31, 2002.

http://necsi.org/projects/klein/klein2002-cacm.pdf

 

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