8. Bibliography and websites
8.2.1 Introduction & websites
126.96.36.199 Paolo Soleri: Arcosanti
188.8.131.52 New Urbanism
184.108.40.206 Green Roofs
220.127.116.11 City Farming
8.3.3 Kinetic Design
8.4.1 "Pattern Language"
Hardin G., 1968, "The Tragedy of the Commons", Science, 162:1243-1248.
Daly H., 1991. Steady-State Economics. Island Press, Washington.
New Economics Foundation
8.1.2 The economy as a "complex system" and the concept of sustainability
T., D. Hammond, and J. Wells. "Can Complexity Studies Advance
Sustainability? Scaling in Natural & Social
Systems." Complex Systems Summer School Final Project Papers, Santa
Tainter J.A., 1996, "Complexity, Problem Solving, and Sustainable Societies"
from GETTING DOWN TO EARTH: Practical Applications of Ecological Economics,
Island Press, 1996; ISBN 1-55963-503-7 http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1559635037
W. Brian Arthur, 1999. "Complexity and the Economy," Science, 2 April 1999, 284, 107-109.
This article does not refer directly to the sustainability of the economic growth, but focus in issues of divergence and non-predictability
More articles of the author are available in:
ZNet & Participatory Economics (PARECON)
Albert M. and Hahnel R., 1991, The Political Economy of Participatory Economics
Further alternative organization paradigms are reported in the section "Integration in the production environment"
1998, Introduction to Sustainable Design.
The Sustainable Design Resource Guide
The "sustainable design" methods are structurally related to phenomena that characterize the living world, as the latter is formed according to sustainability criteria. In particular, such phenomena adopted in "sustainable design" methods include both evolution and development (see also: Combination of the "language" approach with living world paradigms). These phenomena have been thoroughly studied within the framework of "Complex Systems".
Magnoli G.C., Bonanni L.A., Khalaf R., Fox M., 2001, "Designing a DNA for responsive architecture:
a new built environment for social sustainability", MIT Media Lab, Development by design Workshop
The "integration" of both natural and built space within a unified system could be based on the maintenance of the natural environment and the utilization of the natural resources which diminishes the necessity of expensive, cumbersome urban infrastructure. This reduces the social cost while improves the quality of the built space.
Soleri P., 1993, Arcosanti: An Urban Laboratory?. Mayer, AZ.: The Cosanti Press, 1993
P., 1969, Arcology: City in the Image of
Duany A., Speck J., Plater-Zyberk E., 2001, Smart Growth: New Urbanism in American Communities. McGraw-Hill Education
New Urbanism: http://www.newurbanism.org/
Congress for the New Urbanism: http://www.cnu.org
Crawford J.H., 2000, Carfree Cities. International Books
The choice of materials having low social cost while satisfy the required specifications, the utilization of "soft" natural energy sources, the energy saving through bioclimatic techniques such as planting appropriate areas of the construction, as well as the reduction of the urban infrastructure through the production of the necessary resources within the consumption centers, constitute common sustainable building techniques.
Ries J.P. and Holm T.A., 2004, "A Holistic Approach to Sustainability for the Concrete Community", Information sheet 7700.1
Centre for Design at RMIT (1999). "Introduction to EcoReDesign"
Lund J.W., 2004, "100 Years of Geothermal Power Production", GHC Bulletin Articles Vol 25, No. 3: revised version of the article appearing in Renewable Energy World, Vol. 7, No. 4
Lund J., Sanner B., Rybach L., Curtis R., Hellstrom G., 2003, "Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pumps - A World Overview", GHC Bulletin Articles Vol 25, No. 3: edited and updated version of the article from Renewable Energy World, Vol. 6, No.4
Boyd T.L and Lienau P.J., 1995. "Geothermal
Heat Pump Performance", Geothermal Resources Council 1995 Annual Meeting,
K., 2000. "Design Aspects of Commercial Open-Loop Heat Pump Systems",
Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology,
Kavanaugh, S., 1995. "Cost Containment for
Ground-Source Heat Pumps", The
Mendrinos D., Karagiorgas Μ., Karytsas C., 2002, "Use of Geothermal Heat Pumps for Heating of Buildings in Greece" presented in the OPET – Low Temperature Systems in Existing/ Historical Buildings Workshop (OPET – LowExx Workshop), Maastricht, the Netherlands.
Geothermal Energy Technology (GET) subject portal
wikipedia: Geothermal exchange heat pump
GEOEXCHANGE Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium
International Ground Source Heat Pump Association (IGSHPA)
Callaghan C., Kuhn M.E. and Bass B., 1999, "Greenbacks from Green Roofs:
Forging a New Industry in
Resources for City Farming
Smit J., Ratta A. and Nasr J., 1996, Urban Agriculture: Food,
Jobs and Sustainable Cities. The Urban Agriculture Network,NW
Reference to the living world paradigm, spontaneous development, variability, adaptability, formation by evolution, structure development through interactions, as well as the concept of "integration" itself which is closely related to emergent properties, make necessary a broader framework, within the exact sciences, providing the basis for studying both the integrated and the sustainable building. The theory of complex systems provides such a framework, while it has been considered as the basis of many current approaches to both the analysis and the design of the built space.
Y., 1997, Dynamics of Complex Systems. Addison Wesley,
2003, "When Systems Engineering Fails -- Toward Complex Systems
Engineering", International Conference on Systems, Man & Cybernetics,
Vol. 2, 2021- 2028, IEEE Press,
Hensel M., Menges A., Weinstock M., 2004. Emergence: Morphogenetic Design Strategies, Wiley-Academy
Jacobs J., 1993, Death and Life of Great American Cities. Random House USA Inc
Salingaros N.A., 1997, "Life and Complexity in Architecture From a Thermodynamic Analogy", Physics Essays, volume 10 1997, pages 165-173.
N.A., 2005, Principles of Urban Structure. Techne
Design applications based on the principle of adaptability have been developed within the framework of "kinetic design": the building project has kinetic attributes which allow adaptation to variable conditions.
Kinetic Design Group
Information saving and reusability characterizes the integrated systems, as well as the sustainable design in general, as information constitutes an important production resource. A general saving-reusability method is the use of modules which, if combined under appropriate syntactic rules, result in complex modules: this process, recursively applied, makes possible the production of complex desired structures by a construction procedure having a small number of steps. The particular approach to either the design or the construction refers to the notion of a "language". A classical example is C. Alexander's "Pattern Language". The language-based approach can be combined with the living world paradigms of both evolution and development within the framework of complex systems.
C., 1978, A Pattern Language: Towns,
Buildings, Construction. Center for Environmental
Oxford University Press Inc,
Salingaros N.A., Mikiten T.M., 2002, "Darwinian Processes and Memes in Architecture: A Memetic Theory of Modernism". Journal of Memetics - Evolutionary Models of Information Transmission, volume 6
Salingaros N.A., 1998, "A Scientific Basis for Creating Architectural Forms", Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, volume 15 pages 283-293.
More articles available in: http://math.utsa.edu/sphere/salingar/contr.arch.html
The environment of production consists of available production technologies, as well as production units which, if appropriately combined, make possible the production of a collective product. Such a combination could organize the production as an integrated system through the network organization of the producers.
Van Alstyne M., 1997 "The State of
Stephen P. Borgatti and Pacey C. Foster, 2003 "The Network Paradigm in Organizational Research: A Review and Typology", Journal of Management, Volume 29, Issue 6, December 2003, Pages 991-1013
(see also: Social Capital)
Fuchs, 2006, "Transnational Space and the “Network Society”", Paper
Presented at the Association of Internet Researchers (AoIR)
Conference: Internet Research 7.0,
The free distribution and usage of the produced information, as well as the spontaneous formation of the production organization structure, characterize the "open source" paradigm (the term "open source" comes from the field of informatics, as the particular principles were initially applied in software production). The massive free cooperation among producers, aiming to products that constitute common property, is associated to the related paradigm of "peer to peer" (abreviated as "P2P") production.
Loshin P., 2006, "The Economics of Free Software", Busines Intelligence Network (website)
Thinkcycle Open Collaborative Design
Social peer-to-peer processes
The development of informal, mutually beneficial cooperation relations among independent production units, as well as the informal formation of a unified production mechanism based on such relations, is characterized as "virtual enterprise".
2000, "Technologies for the Virtual
Bryson J.R., Rusten G., 2004, "Virtual Firms and the Rise of Project-Based Organizational Forms for the Supply of Business Service Expertise: Information communication technologies and the stretching of social relationships across space", XIVe Conference RESER – Castres, TIC et relations de services dans une economie globalisee
Z, Wozniakova Z, 2009, "Virtual Firm
Katzy BR, Obozinski V, 1999,
"Designing the Virtual
The development of various forms of networked production requires a social infrastructure which includes both knowledge and skill variability, as well as a network of appropriate social relations. This infrastructure is characterized as "social capital".
Burt R., 2000, "The network structure of social capital", in Research in Organizational Behavior, Volume 22, BM Staw, RL Sutton (Eds), JAI Press, Greenwich CT
M. Klein, H. Sayama, P. Faratin, and Y. Bar-Yam: What complex systems research can teach us about collaborative design, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Design (CSCWD-2001), 5-12, 2001, IEEE Press.
J. K. Werfel and Y. Bar-Yam, The evolution of reproductive restraint through social communication, PNAS 101, 11019-11024, 2004.
M. Klein, H. Sayama, P. Faratin, and Y. Bar-Yam: The dynamics of collaborative design: Insights from complex systems and negotiation research, Concurrent Engineering: Research and Applications (CERA Journal) 11:3, 201-209, September
M. Klein, H. Sayama, P. Faratin, and Y. Bar-Yam: A complex systems perspective on computer-supported collaborative design technology, Communications of the ACM 45:11, 27-31, 2002.